New technology in the field of glass production lowered the gas release of substances such as NOx and particulates, and parameters such as BOD, but there is still room for Potential and Representatives for Application of EMS to Food Industries 13 further improvement. Although attaining zero pollution is a virtually impossible target, striving to improve the environment is a constant goal (Slater, 1997).
Industry provides a selection of techniques and pollution arrestment plans available for meeting current or even future (most probably stricter) legal requirements. As to the recent EU legislation, the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) reported in a British newspaper (became UK law in October 1999), that consideration should also be given to the possible reversal of enforcement from local authority to the HM Inspectorate of Pollution (Environmental Protection Act, 1990).
The use of toxic heavy metals is subjected to severe restrictions in order to reduce their effects on the environment, to guarantee health and safety at the workplace and, in general, to minimize their mean daily intake by individuals (Guadgnino, 1996). The impact of the Clean Water Act (CWA) on industry was reviewed from the historical perspective of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (Kobylinski and Hunter, 1992). Gemar (1991) suggested how industries could comply with the new pretreatment regulations for discharge to a publicly owned treatment works (POTW).
These regulations focused on both mass and concentration of specific compounds discharged to the municipal sewer. A waste management plan for the chemical and petrochemical industry in Brazil included regional management of hazardous wastes, strict control of landfill content and pretreatment facilities. The improvement of groundwater quality at a major industrial complex was initiated in three phases: baseline data collection, establishment of monitoring programs and recommendations for new management practices.
Increase in polluted areas due to poor landfill operations at a chemical industry in the Netherlands was the main factor that led to a program of waste management/minimization for this facility. A recovery process for nitrophenols addressing possible thermal instabilities was developed to meet the limits set on phenolic compounds sent for biological waste treatment (Teixeira and Balassiano, 1991). Biological treatment is a very important process for removing dissolved organics from refinery wastewater.
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Microbial cultures were studied to compare the ability to biotreat refinery spent sulfidic caustic from a refinery. Both cultures, Thiobacillus denitrificans strain F and an acclimated culture enriched from an activated sludge treatment system at a refinery, proved to be capable of complete oxidation of caustic sulfides to sulfates at specific activities of 1.0–1.3 mmol sulfide/h g mixed liquor suspended solids (Kolhatkar and Sublette, 1996).
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